A Phase Shift Oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit which produces sine wave output. It can either be designed by using transistor or by using an Op-amp as inverting amplifier. Generally, these phase shift oscillators are used as audio oscillators. In RC phase shift oscillator, degree phase shift is generated by the RC network and another degree is generated by the Op-amp, so the resulting wave is inverted by degree.

Apart from generating the sine wave output they are also used to provide significant control over the phase shifting process. Other usages of phase shift oscillators are:. Before we start designing the RC phase shift oscillator, Lets learn more about it phase and phase shift. Phase is a full cycle period of a sinusoidal wave in a degree reference.

A complete cycle is defined as the interval required for the waveform to return its arbitrary initial value.

Phase is denoted as a pointed position on this waveform cycle. If we see the sinusoidal wave we can easily identify the phase. In the above image, a complete wave cycle is shown. The initial starting point of the sinusoidal wave is 0 degree in phase and if we identify each positive and negative peak and 0 points, we will get 90, degree phase.

A simple RC phase shift oscillator provides a minimum phase shift of 60 degree. Ideally, the phase shift of the output wave of an RC circuit should be 90 degree, but in practical it is approx.

The formula for calculating the phase angle of the RC network is mentioned below:. Where, Xc is the reactance of the capacitor and R is the resistor connected in the RC network. Learn more about them in our previous tutorial. When we use op-amp for RC phase shift oscillator, it functions as an inverting amplifier.

Initially, the input wave has been into the RC network, due to which we get degree of phase shift. And, this output of RC is fed into the inverting terminal of the op-amp.

Now, as we know that the op-amp will produce a degree of phase shift when functions as an inverting amplifier. So, we get a degree of phase shift in the output sine wave. This RC phase shift oscillator using op-amp provides a constant frequency even under the varying load conditions. RC phase shift oscillator provides an accurate sine wave output.

As you can see in the simulation video in the end, we have set the probe of the oscilloscope to four stages of the circuit. Here, the feedback network is offering a phase shift of degree. We are getting 60 degree from each of the RC network. And, the remaining degree phase shift is generated by the op-amp in the inverting configuration.

For calculating the frequency of oscillation use the below formula:. Get Our Weekly Newsletter! Helena St. Related Content. Relaxation Oscillator using Op-amp.An oscillator generates output without any ac input signal.

An electronic oscillator is a circuit which converts dc energy into ac at a very high frequency. An amplifier with a positive feedback can be understood as an oscillator. An amplifier increases the signal strength of the input signal applied, whereas an oscillator generates a signal without that input signal, but it requires dc for its operation.

This is the main difference between an amplifier and an oscillator. Take a look at the following illustration. It clearly shows how an amplifier takes energy from d. An oscillator produces an oscillating a. The frequency, waveform, and magnitude of a. An alternator is a mechanical device that produces sinusoidal waves without any input.

This a.

### Types of Oscillator Circuits - Basics, Conditions, Block Diagram

The output frequency depends on the number of poles and the speed of rotation of the armature. An alternator converts mechanical energy to a. Oscillators can also be considered as opposite to rectifiers that convert a.

You can get a detailed description on rectifiers in our Electronic Circuits tutorial. Such oscillators can provide output at frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 1 GHz. Such oscillators can provide output at frequencies ranging from 0 Hz to 20 MHz.

We will discuss only about Sinusoidal Oscillators in this tutorial.

You can learn the functions of non-sinusoidal oscillators from our Pulse Circuits tutorial. Thus they are also known as radio frequency R. Such oscillators are Hartley, Colpitts, Clapp-oscillators etc. Thus they are also known as audio-frequency A. Such oscillators are Phase —shift and Wein-bridge oscillators. The Piezo oscillator is an example of a crystal oscillator.The electronic circuit that produces periodically oscillating electronic signal such as sine wave, square wave or any other wave is termed as Electronic Oscillator.

Oscillators can be classified into different types generally based on their output frequency. Electronic oscillators can be termed as voltage controlled oscillators as their frequency of oscillations can be controlled by their input voltage.

Foremost electronic voltage controlled oscillators can be considered as two types namely: Linear Oscillator and Nonlinear Oscillator. Nonlinear oscillators are used to produce non-sinusoidal output waveforms. Linear oscillators are used to produce sinusoidal output waveforms and are further classified into many types, such as Feed back oscillator, Negative resistance oscillator, Colpitts oscillator, Hartley oscillator, Armstrong oscillator, Phase shift oscillator, Clapp oscillator, Delay line oscillator, Pierce oscillator, Wien bridge oscillator, Robinson oscillator, and so on.

In this particular article, we are discussing about one of the many types of linear oscillator circuits namely Colpitts Oscillator. Oscillator is an amplifier with the positive feedback and it converts DC input signal into AC output waveform with certain variable frequency drive and certain shape of output waveform like sine wave or square wave, etc by using the positive feedback instead of input signal.

Oscillators which utilizes the inductor L and capacitor C in their circuit are called as LC oscillator which is a type of linear oscillator.

## Colpitts Oscillator: Working and Applications

LC oscillators can be designed by using different methods. The well known LC oscillators are Hartley oscillator and Colpitts oscillator. Among these two, the frequently used design is Colpitts Oscillator designed by and named after an American Engineer Edwin H Colpitts in It consists of a tank circuit which is an LC resonance sub circuit made of two series capacitors connected in parallel to an inductor and frequency of oscillations can be determined by using the values of these capacitors and inductor of the tank circuit.

This oscillator is almost similar to Hartley oscillator in all aspects; hence, it is termed as electrical dual of Hartley oscillator and is designed for the generation of high frequency sinusoidal oscillations with the radio frequencies typically ranging from 10 KHz to MHz.

The major difference between these two oscillators is that it uses tapped capacitance, whereas the Hartley oscillator uses tapped inductance.

## RC phase shift Oscillator Circuit

Re resistor in the above circuit provides stabilization for circuit against variations in temperature. The capacitor Ce connected in the circuit which is parallel to the Re, provides low reactive path to the amplified AC signal acting as Bypass capacitor.

The Resistors R1 and R2 form voltage divider for circuit and provides bias to the transistor. The circuit consists of a RC coupled amplifier with common emitter configuration transistor. Whenever power supply is switched on, the capacitors C1 and C2 shown in the above circuit start charging and after the capacitors get fully charged, the capacitors starts discharging through the inductor L1 in the circuit causing damped harmonic oscillations in the tank circuit.

While these capacitors get fully discharged, the electrostatic energy stored in the capacitors get transferred in the form of magnetic flux to the inductor and thus inductor gets charged. Similarly, when the inductor starts discharging, the capacitors start charging again and this process of energy charging and discharging capacitors and inductor continues causing the generation of oscillations and the frequency of these oscillations can be determined by using the resonant frequency of the tank circuit consisting of inductor and capacitors.

This tank circuit is considered as the energy reservoir or energy storage. This is because of frequent energy charging and discharging of the inductor, capacitors that part of LC network forming the tank circuit. The continuous undamped oscillations can be obtained from the Barkhausen criterion. For sustained oscillations, the total phase shift must be or The common emitter transistor produces phase shift between the input and output voltage.

Thus, from the Barkhausen criterion we can get undamped continuous oscillations. The resonant frequency is given by.CD IC is a stage counter and counter is a binary ripple carry type. It consists of a stage ripple carry binary counter along with an internal oscillator. Additionally, we can configure crystal oscillators with RC circuits or external crystal.

It operates over a power supply range of 3V to 15V.

**The beauty of LC Oscillations!**

CD binary counter IC consists of 16 pins. Q4 — Q14 are output pins. These pins offer binary counter output on every positive edge of the clock cycle. Pins that we use to connect the oscillator circuit are Pin This simple diagram shows a pin configuration diagram. As we mentioned earlier, this IC has 16 pins in total. Each pin, its name, and description are given in the table below. CD is an oscillator and counter IC with 10 outputs and can be used in applications that require discrete and accurate variable time delays.

On top of that, it can also be used for acquiring high grade and accurate oscillations of frequencies. It is best for use in timing applications. If you want to design a simple but reliable time delay circuit with a few components, then you can use this IC. The CD IC has an in-built oscillator module. As it is a binary counter, therefore on every negative transition of clock pulse, the counter value gets incremented by 1 in binary numbers.

The reset input should always be grounded or connected to the negative power supply. If a positive signal 1 or HIGH is applied to this input, it will reset the counter or oscillations to start from beginning. CD has an inbuilt oscillator whose value is determined by the external capacitor connected to pin 11 and resistances connected to its pin 9 and pin Time delay can be changed by varying the value of capacitor or resistor.

The formula for finding the oscillation frequency is:. You can also set the desired frequency by adjusting the values of R1 and C1 in the above equation. Therefore, with these capacitors and resistor values, the clock frequency is 1.

But all output pins states will not change according to this time period. However, they will change state in multiple of this oscillator time period.In this short post, let us discuss about block diagram of the oscillators, various conditions to me for sustained oscillation, various types of oscillator circuits Any circuit which is used to generate ac voltage without ac input signal is called an oscillator.

The oscillator circuit is received energy from a DC source to generate AC voltage.

### Sinusoidal Oscillators - Quick Guide

What are the various types of Oscillator Circuits? The oscillator circuits are classified in the following different ways. Sinusoidal Oscillator: If the output voltage of the oscillator circuit is a sine wave function of time, the oscillator is called as a Sinusoidal oscillator or Harmonic oscillator. Relaxation Oscillator: This category of oscillator generates voltages or currents which vary abruptly one or more times in a cycle of oscillation. Negative Resistance oscillator: It uses negative resistance of the amplifying device to neutralize the positive resistance of the oscillator.

The difference between them is the manner in which they provide the energy to the tank circuit to produce the oscillations.

What are the conditions to be met to generate Oscillator wave forms? The essential conditions for maintaining oscillations are 1. The total phase shift around the closed loop is zero or degrees. For all practical oscillators, this onset of non-linearity is mandatory.

Thanks for reading about various types of Oscillator Circuits How to control Speed of DC series Motor?

Please leave your comments below July 31, November 10, January 10, Your email address will not be published. Notify me of follow-up comments by email.What is a phase shift oscillator? Following is a schematic diagram of a typical phase shift oscillator:. Phase Shift Oscillator. The triode is configured as an inverting amplifier to provide the necessary gain, and the feedback network is connected from the plate to the grid.

Three of these phase lead 1 networks contribute a total of degrees of phase shift at the oscillation frequency. Note that a phase shift oscillator could also be built using four or more phase shift elements, with each element contributing less overall phase shift at the oscillation frequency. Normally, there is no need to do this, as it takes extra components. A minimum of three phase shift networks is required, however, because the maximum theoretical phase shift available from any one RC network is 90 degrees, and the actual phase shift approaches this value asymptotically.

A phase shift oscillator can also be made using three phase lag networks, which are obtained by swapping the positions of the R and C value components in the above schematic. The lag network would require one additional coupling cap to block the DC on the plate voltage from the grid, and one additional resistor to provide the grid bias ground reference for V1A, so it is not normally used. Following is a plot of the phase shift and attenuation characteristics of the phase lead and phase lag networks:.

The phase lag network, on the other hand, starts at 0 degrees, shifts through degrees at the -3dB point, and continues on towards degrees above 1kHz. Either one will provide an effective 0 degrees phase shift when three of them are combined with the degree phase shift of the amplifier as shown in the phase shift oscillator schematic.

The oscillations will occur at a frequency given by the following equation:. In order to obtain the lowest distortion for the best sine wave, the amplifier should be operated with a gain of exactly 29, which is just the bare minimum necessary to sustain oscillation. This will produce the purest sine wave, however, it is impractical if tubes of varying gains may be substituted this usually requires an adjustment control to trim the gainor if the frequency of oscillation must be adjusted in such a manner as to change the gain of the network.

For these reasons, the gain is usually made higher, and post-filtering of the waveform is done to remove unwanted harmonic distortion. This allows use of lower gain tubes if necessary, since the gain of the amplifier only has to be at least The design procedure. Following are the steps necessary to design a vacuum tube phase shift oscillator. For this example, we will assume that it is desired to make a three-stage vacuum tube phase shift oscillator with a nominal oscillation frequency of 7Hz.

The calculated gain of Note: the symbol " " means "in parallel with". Resistors in parallel add in reciprocal, i.We know the Oscillator is a electronic circuit which produce sinusoidal or non sinusoidal wave with required frequency and amplitude.

Every Oscillator circuits will have tank, amplifier and feed back circuit to produce waveforms. Here RC phase shift Oscillator circuit designed to produce sinusoidal wave form with few easily available components.

Output signal frequency is depends on the tank circuit elements and its value, here the tank circuit consist with Resistors and Capacitors. Output is picked up from Transistor collector terminal through output coupling capacitor C5. This whole RC phase shift oscillator circuit is powered by 9V battery. When we apply the power supply to this circuit, the random variations of base current caused by noise variations in the transistor and voltage variations in the power source produce oscillation, and this variations amplified by the transistor amplifier.

This RC phase shift oscillator feedback network is consists of three stages of RC networks and these are identical and has equal values. We can obtain continuous sine wave output with fixed frequency. RC phase shift oscillator circuit will provide stable low frequency oscillation. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Currently you have JavaScript disabled. In order to post comments, please make sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and reload the page.

Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. Skip to content. Related Posts. Remote alarm for smoke detector. March 29, December 2, 0. MLX Arduino. August 5, August 22, 0. BH Sensor Arduino Interfacing. August 7, 0. December 20, December 2, 0. June 17, June 17, 0. Boost Converter Circuit. September 6, September 6, 0. Previous Post.

Next Post. Add a Comment Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Menu Search for. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Accept Read More. Necessary Necessary.

## One Comment